Answering COGIC questions about COGIC abuse

September 9, 2014 Leave a comment

repost from September 9th, 2009 [source]

Questions conceptYesterday, 143 years after the birth of Church of God in Christ founder Bishop CH Mason, was launched (1) in defense and support of victims of COGIC clergy sexual abuse (2) in support of survivors of clergy sexual abuse and (3) to confront ongoing silence and inaction against such abuses.

Its understandable that some COGIC members would take immediate offense (although unwarranted), some will understand,  but perhaps remain silent and some will try to sort out what they perceive as legitimate versus nonlegitimate information on the site.

As I’ve said here previously and on the site, this isn’t theory or conjecture on my part, as a survivor of sexual molestation while growing up in COGIC, I speak from painful past experience and intimately know what is like to be the object of someone’s untoward sexual desires.

That being said, I’ve agreed to answer the following questions posed by Julia Thuston who commented she was “very skeptical” of the new site.

There’s no real guarantee that the answers will satisfy her or anyone else, but unlike leaders of the COGIC, I will answer honestly and openly about this site and its intentions.

Thuston: The question would be what happens to the information given to these “watch dog” groups.

First, let’s orient ourselves to proper biblical terminology in regards to this effort. In the Old Testament, the term watchman or “watchman on the wall” was synonymous with a God-ordained position of trust. You can check Is 62:6, Neh 4:9, 2 Sam 18:24, Ezekiel 33:2,3 and more. Please note their specific duties.  They had a mission to ensure safety and peace.  Jesus commanded us to “watch” as well as pray that we enter not into temptation. In other words, beware lest you be fooled by deceitful people and situations.  This is not an indictment on COGIC, but an indictment on sin which needs to be dealt with at the roots. Unfortunately it is our belief that the leadership of COGIC has failed miserably to do so. God commanded the watchman to set on the wall and to declare what he sees (Is 21:6). Not only have we seen it, we’ve shown proof of its existence. We are not “watch dogs” (a pejorative), rather we function as watchmen (an honorable service to the body of Christ).

Information given to may come from many sources, but until they are vetted, with accompanying evidence, it will not appear on the site. If information is given to us of a current situation, rest assured we will immediately pass on the information to authorities. One of the factors which aid molesters to go undetected for so long is ignorance, whether willful or not. The other factor is opportunity. If we do not shine the light on this issue, it will only grow worse with time. The site is to serve notice to any man or woman stalking a child or another vunerable member of the church, if God so allows to expose you, we will gladly assist. Repent and turn now while God’s mercy allows it.

Thuston: Is this ministry or just slander?

Not one, single person or situation cited on is remotely slanderous. All have been traced to official legal documents and or verified media reports (which also cite court records) and/or official COGIC documents. In addition, everything can be verified as all are matters of public record.

Slander is legally defined as making of defamatory statements by a transitory (non-fixed) representation, usually an oral (spoken) representation. Libel involves the making of defamatory statements in a printed or fixed medium, such as a magazine or newspaper. Biblically, both would be summarized as lying or bearing false witness.

It is ministry because the fundamental definition of ministry is finding and meeting needs. This is a need that has been rejected by COGIC’s leadership and God has given it to us.

Thuston: When do we  actually do Galations 6.

Galatians 6 which states that spiritual members of the Body are to restore a brother who is overtaken in a fault is certainly to be considered in these cases. And no one is beyond forgiveness and restoration. We do need to understand the connotation of “overtaken” as opposed to pursuit and maintenance of a sinful lifestyle.  However, sexual crimes pose a legitimate caveat for Gal 6. To wit, a sexual crime and a sexual sin ( or fault) are not automatically interchangeable, thus consequences come to bear.  If a brother committed a sexual sin, forgiving and restoring him or her would be the sole jurisdiction of the church or at least those who are spiritual. Galatians 6 is applicable. If a brother committed a sexual crime which is also sin, the church does not hold sole jurisdiction and Galatians 6 is only applicable in part. While such a one can be forgiven, restoration (and restitution) is in the hands of the state. When we unjustly use scripture to protect individuals from facing the consequences of their crime, we become partakers of their sin and instead of facilitating the intent of Gal 6, we thwart it.

Thuston: Are the abused really helped on this sight [sic]?

Yes, they are. The site sends a clear, unwavering message that we do not support those who violate the innocent. Very few persons who are sexually abused jump out in the open and fight their abusers. The reason is because they have been conditioned by the abuser to be quiet and submissive. We stand in the gap and speak up for them. This helps them to gain confidence to go forward towards restoration. Unfortunately, confidence is not all they need. They need justice, they need compassion and they need compensation to handle counseling (and medical) bills in the wake of a plethora of emotional, sexual and relationship deficiencies that result from sexual damage. At the very least, if the guilt of the perpetrator is proven, why isnt grace, compassion and assistance extended by the church to the victims and their families? Are they somehow unworthy of this because they were forced to seek justice outside of the church? We have already cited how COGIC ignored and in some cases chastised the numerous victims and families of Bishop John Husband while they offered the guilty man help and an open door back to his position. Is that justice?

Additionally, we welcome the assistance of COGIC members in the legal, counseling and medical fields to offer their expert services to victims and their families. We need a healing support community to help with the intangible aftermath of sexual abuse. Its my belief that the Women’s Department could very easily absorb this responsibility given its natural  function of  teaching and raising children and young women. And we must not forget that there are many young men who have been sexually violated that have never spoken up yet they suffer the same.

Thuston: Will there be an actuall [sic] investigation of the situations that are reported on this sight[sic]?

If you take time to actually read each case cited, you will see patterns emerge.  If you read the deposition of Enoch Perry (which is posted), you will see that COGIC is either in shambles or someone is clearly lying about the structure and governance of the church. Either one spells serious disservice to victims of clergy sexual abuse. We certainly hope Bishop Blake will direct and organize the appropriate persons within COGIC to deal with the problem. As you can see from the two year old public quotes made by Bishop Blake, he has no intention of doing so. Therefore, became a necessity.

Thuston: Or will as the person cited every COGIC church and preacher be targeted by the actions of very few?

No, we have not speculated or entertained rumors nor implicated anyone not guilty. But the guilty, proven in a court of law, reflect negatively on the whole church. Its not ethical for the whole church to beam with pride over the positive accomplishments of a few, but divorce themselves from the criminal activity of a few. In most of the cases we cited, these men had been part of COGIC for decades if not more. While I agree that not every person in COGIC is directly responsible for the actions of its members, those who KNOW and remain silent are equally guilty. Furthermore, the scriptures warn us that it only takes a small amount of leaven to affect the whole lump. Incidentally, this warning was given as a result of leaders in the Corinthian church refusing to deal with sexual sin in their midst.

Thuston: Or will this just  end up as another “National Enquire” gosip slander site?

No, your fears are completely unfounded. Gossip is sinful and deadly. Gossip is defined as habitually spreading intimate or private rumors or facts. What we have done is to gather already public information, archive it and present it as evidence that the problem is far greater than some believe it to be. Trust that we know much more that we are able to speak about at this time. But let judgment begin at the house of God. His house is to be called a house of prayer, but you have made it a place where sexual thieves find comfort. That is truly an abomination the National Enquirer could never come close to duplicating.

—Thanks for your questions.

Categories: Uncategorized

Report COGIC Abuse launched on the birthday of COGIC founder Bishop CH Mason to highlight the need for holiness emphasis on sexual integrity among leaders

September 9, 2014 Leave a comment

Charles Harrison Mason, undouRCA Five Years of Servicebtedly one of the most influential spiritual leaders of the 20th century, was born September 8, 1866 just outside Memphis, Tennessee and later founded what has become the nation’s largest black pentecostal denomination.

The church he left upon his death in November 1961 has changed. Greed, avarice, pride, infighting, division and sexual immorality have darkened the spiritual legacy while “the show” of church continued unabated.

Because of growing incidents of sexual abuse of women and children by church leaders, and the coverup of those crimes, Report COGIC Abuse was launched 5 years ago. The site’s main goal is to empower the people of COGIC with reliable information, resources and a grass roots friendly instrument to fight the culture of silence and inaction which emboldens sexual predators to continue their devastation upon innocent men, women and children. We believe Bishop Mason would not have stood by silently in the face of such grave abuses of someone’s sexual sanctity. The site also raises up the profile and plight of victims and the families who are often quickly pushed to the side and forgotten.

We’re thankful, grateful and humbled by the changes that have been enacted since Report COGIC Abuse began its mission five years ago. But sadly, we must continue exposing wolves, fighting predators and crying aloud until victory is won.

Rest in peace Bishop Mason.

Numerous assault complaints filed against COGIC National Trustee Cari Barnes

WTCHOUSTON – Some members of the Williams Temple Church of God in Christ in Houston say that they are being bullied, threatened and even physically attacked by a woman who serves as a National Trustee of the denomination. And neither the pastor, bishop or national church has responded to any of their cries for support and justice.

Its a sad situation to report but when one looks at those in authority, it becomes very clear why little has been done to reel in Cari V. Barnes’ from attacking fellow church members.

Williams Temple was once a spiritual crown jewel COGIC congregation with a glorious history.  Founded in 1919, the  church saw several storied pastors, including Bishop CH Nelson and Bishop Robert Woodard, Sr.  lead it to prominence in the 3rd Ward of central Houston. A 2 million dollar complex was built in 1989. When Bishop Woodard, Jr. died in 2001, Williams Temple’s membership hovered at over 1,000.  Now, the church is a shell of its former self, having lost over 75% of its members, much of it a reaction to the sexual abuse arrest and scandal of its current pastor.

In December 2007,  the church fell into the grasp of Bishop Charles Brown who was caught up in a storm of controversy after 3 female members of his family accused him of molesting them as children. After being arrested, Brown was removed from his position in the denomination but then quickly “reinstated” once the sexual abuse case was dismissed on a legal technicality.

Report COGIC Abuse later learned that The General Board paid off all of Brown’s accusers in an out of  court settlement. Listen to the victims tell what happened to them.

Since Brown took control, according to church members, the congregation has suffered greatly.  Cari Barnes is a product of the confusion and discord controlling the church now.


Barnes is granddaughter of the late Texas Women’s Supervisor Victoria Barnes and her husband the late Titus, Sr,  a successful funeral magnate, trustee and deacon at Williams Temple. She was elected to the national church’s Trustee Board in 2012.

Documents obtained by Report COGIC Abuse show that Barnes’ out of control behavior at the church prompted complaints to be filed with the Houston Police Department,  jurisdictional Bishop Rufus Kyles (see here for another Kyles legal controversy), and to Bishop Charles Brown but thus far, no corrective actions have been taken against Barnes.

According to a letter dated Aucbarnesg 8, 2011 from Deacon Weldon Meeks, a former trustee who’s been a member for 33 years,  to Bishop Kyles,  Barnes used profanity and physical assault towards him in the church office after he asked another member about a check signature.

“You [the other member] don’t have to explain nothing to him”!  I was not talking to you and you go to Hell, you go to Hell, you is [sic] a ignorant as Hell and you go to Hell! *sshole, that [sic] what you do go to Hell!  Meeks said Barnes told him to “get the hell out of my way” as she “elbowed” him in passing.

Another undated letter to the church’s trustee board from its finance manager said Barnes accosted her openly in church in front of other saints and youth, loudly accusing her of attempting to sabotage relationships and deny compensation to a family member.

On another occasion, the finance manager wrote that Barnes confronted her because an announcement wasn’t read. Barnes told Bishop Brown to fire the finance manager and Brown did so.

“Cari Barnes consistently and constantly abuses and misrepresents the power entrusted to her by the congregation of Williams Temple COGIC, Inc. and is an embarrassment to the office of Trustee. I am sending my documented proof at this time, because previously nothing would be done about her out of control behavior by Bishop Brown. Now that we have new leadership whether it is temporarily or not, I am sending my statement so that a true picture of occurrences can be conveyed.”

On June 21st, Barnes was involved in yet another altercation in the church office with Deacon Robert Price. According to  Price’s complaint sent to Bishop Brown, Price says after he refused to give Barnes a receipt she demanded, she “struck him in the back of the head and jumped on his back.”

Brown acknowledged receipt of the incident the next day writing in an email, “Robert and Cari
I am sorry to hear of this unfortunately [sic] incident between the two of you. I will set a meeting with you and resolve this problem. I will contact both of you for a time to meet! Thanks!”

Its unknown whether this meeting ever occurred.

Admittedly, internal church conflicts never benefit anyone. If Williams Temple is to stop itself from sliding into mausoleum status, it will have to resolve these conflicts once and for all. Perhaps part of the resolution is putting a leader in place that has the moral authority to bring peace and discipline offenders of the peace.


Former COGIC pastor found “not guilty” in lewdness charges

June 27, 2014 2 comments

Update on a story RCA first reported  here.  A Las Vegas jury found Pastor Billy McCurdy not guilty of lewdness charges after a  trial in 2013.  KSNV 3 Las Vegas said the case was decided mainly on a strange retraction by one of the accusers.

mccurdy“For more than two years, a pastor has lived with accusations of sexual assault involving two young men at Revival Temple Church.
On Thursday, Billy McCurdy heard the words he’s been waiting for — not guilty. The charges could have meant life in prison. The accusations came in late 2010. But then, one of those men recanted to News 3.  The transcript of that interview was read to the jury — a strange but pivotal part of the case.  McCurdy continues to serve at Revival Temple Church. On Friday, he will be there — with a different message: “It’ll be jubilee, we can celebrate, our liberation, our freedom,” McCurdy said. McCurdy says he is happy to move forward but has lost so much — more than two years of strife and a daughter who, he says, passed away from an overdose as she unable to live with the stress of the trial.”

But a detractor quickly set up a facebook page asserting that evidence was withheld.

“I am creating this page, to allow the public to know the truth, the truth about Billy E. Mccurdy. Billy Mccurdy was recently found not guilty on many sex charges that he faced concerning two EXmembers of Revival Temple. What the public does not know is that, much of the evidence against Billy Mccurdy was kept from the investigation and trial to help Billy Mccurdy go free. Billy Mccurdys life time partner, as stated by Billy himself, Rodney K. Chaney who is a deacon of Revival Temple and Senior Vice President of Bank of Las Vegas also helped to cover up the truth. Rodney Chaney assisted Mccurdy to help invite young men over late at night and Billy Mccurdy would engage in sex with them. One young man was even paid to leave the state after stating that he got what he wanted from them.”

Its unclear whether McCurdy is still functioning as a credentialed COGIC pastor.


COGIC’s rancid politics driving away the best and brightest?

Wbass For one man who’s had enough of the rancid politics, stifling nepotism, repulsive arrogance and leadership greed, the time has come to say goodbye to the church of his birth.

Pastor Wayne Bass, Sr. of New Haven, CT, son of  Bishop Joseph E. and Mary Bass wrote on his facebook page that  the ” Almighty positioned our church at the vanguard of the Pentecostal-Holiness movement in America. However, we have long since abandoned our roots and departed from our destiny.” Many others believe that as well but do not have the courage to voice it.

Bass was a  lifelong member of the Church of God in Christ and in ministry since  1967.  He and his wife served as long-term missionaries in South Africa. That’s something you wouldn’t expect from a man who holds two degrees from Yale University, along with extensive studies at the Interdenominational Theological Center in Atlanta.

Bass’ four page, open letter style monologue is both a heartbreaking but also a frightening portrait of what the corporate church has become.  Apart from infrequent bouts with “shouting and dancing” and harkenings to its historical legacy, the Church of God in Christ is no more.

“Despite frequent and urgent warnings, the CHURCH OF GOD IN CHRIST has gradually morphed into an organization that can now be aptly described as the poster child for PERSONAL-AMBITION-RUN-AMUCK. One can scarcely dialogue with those who seek to scale its ecclesiastical ladder without being queried as to the quality and quantity of one’s personal participation, e.g. one’s official positions held within the hierarchy of the church. This degree of abject carnality constitutes a death knell to our divine calling and anointing.”

Bass sees the problem as systemic. Much like the injustice of  clergy sexual abuse we’ve consistently documented, other “fruit” has manifested itself and there seems to be no collective will to self correct.

“A grave, systemic problem exists. Something is terribly wrong. We have a deadly cancer in the body and we desperately need to identify and excise it. Indeed, we ourselves have created a self-perpetuating, hierarchical monstrosity, characterized by rugged individualism, power grabbing and unabashed greed. To cite one crystal clear example, our financial system is ineffective, nonsensical, and even corrupt. Consider this: How can we ever hope to FUND THE MINISTRY MISSION OF OUR CHURCH when we are so intent on siphoning off funds to “bless” those who hold leadership positions? It is important to note that such funds are frequently raised on the backs of those at or near the bottom of the socio-economic ladder.”

Its hard to spot idolatry when you are maintaining the mountain of religious activities that look and feel like God, but a spiritual eye can see it. Idolatry has crept into the COGIC psyche and sprouted roots.

“Along with these untoward attitudes, a not-so-subtle FORM OF IDOLATRY has systematically infiltrated our ranks, and even our worship services. The creature is now exalted above The Creator, and it is now an integral component of our collective consciousness. However, we must be ever mindful that ALMIGHTY GOD will never brook or tolerate ‘lesser gods,’ be they animate or inanimate. While I love and respect the late Bishop J. O. Patterson, Sr. (our first elected Presiding Bishop), he made one grave error, i.e. allowing one egocentric man [we all know who he is]* to radically rewrite and revise our heritage – changing us from what we once were and transforming us into pretentious and highfaluting versions of our former selves. If Bishop Mason could see our present-day pomp and pageantry, our esteemed Founder would roll over in his grave, if possible.”

When I grew up in the church, if you left COGIC, you were viewed —and treated— as a backslider. Not in a good way. You were shunned and talked about because you left holiness.  Because we anointed ourselves “the greatest church in the world”, we were taught there was nowhere to go but down if you left. I pray that COGIC has educated itself enough to know that the Body of Christ isn’t restricted solely to the denominational confines of a 5-6 million member black pentecostal church. That would be like the Jehovah’s Witnesses 144,000 lie.

Bass seems to anticipate there will be some of that. “It will be quite easy for some to dismiss my words as the ramblings of a cynical, unwise, or embittered man.”, he writes.

Bass’ letter should in no way taken to mean that every member and officer of the Church of God in Christ has become a baal-worshipping  heathen. He’s not saying that, but he is grieving over the purity of  what once was is no more. And something wicked has taken its place.  We grieve with him and praise him for moving on as the Lord gives him grace to do.

Read Elder Wayne  Bass’ entire letter in Documents and Letters section.

*Bass is referring to Bishop J. Delano Ellis, who is credited with bringing the “high church” look to COGIC’s ecclesiastical aristocracy.

WATCH! Bishop Charles Blake KO sexual sins in WIC message

June 2, 2014 3 comments

The undercover sex wolves in COGIC are NOT going to like this.But COGIC Presiding Bishop Charles E. Blake deserves some much needed praise for putting the sword to sexual sins during his address at COGIC’s 64th International Women’s Convention in Louisville this past week. The teaching is masterful and befitting instruction from the office of the Presiding Bishop especially in times like these when adultery, fornication, homosexuality and sexual manipulation sins are cresting IN the church.

Not only did Bishop Blake methodically hit the biblical, moral and physical consequences of said sexual sins, he laid out factual statistics as well.
Now, if he would just do a repeat at the Men’s Conference. Watch all three excerpts below.

Houston lawsuit accuses Bishops Blake, Kyles, Perry and Brown of over one million dollars property theft

April 18, 2014 5 comments

rkylesHOUSTON, TX – A lawsuit being adjudicated in Harris County Texas’ 133rd District Court alleges that COGIC Presiding Bishop Charles Blake, Sr.,  Texas Southeast First Jurisdiction Bishop Rufus Kyles, Bishop Charles Brown II and newly minted bishop Enoch Perry, III acting on behalf of the denomination’s General Board, were responsible for the theft of over 1 million dollars of intellectual properties and items from a church location [source]. The Church of God in Christ, Inc. is also a named defendant.

The plaintiffs Dr. Patricia Brown-Johnson and Interfaith Interdenominational Ministries, Inc say that in 2005 Bishop Kyles accepted Brown-Johnson as a member of his jurisdiction under a special program due to COGIC’s prohibition of female pastors. Brown-Johnson was to be given the designation of  “Special Alliance Supervisor”.  Kyles later offered to buy a Baytown, Texas church owned by Brown-Johnson and while in possession of the property, sold or allowed to be sold equipment and other items not contained in the agreement. The agreement went sour when Kyles refused to close on the property.

When Brown-Johnson sought to get the items returned through church leadership channels, she was asked by Presiding Bishop GE Patterson (deceased) and then General Secretary AZ Hall (deceased)  not to pursue criminal charges and that the church would recompense the losses. Church leaders wanted to keep the issue private and handle it “internally”.

Brown-Johnson stated in the lawsuit that she contacted the General Board and was instructed to provide extensive documentation because [she was told by Enoch Perry] Bishop Kyles was going to be “defrocked” over the incident and a trial was to be held. She was repeatedly assured by GB bishops that her property would be returned and she would be compensated for any unreturnable losses. Based on these assurances, she did not file criminal or civil suits.

But after providing the evidence to the satisfaction of Enoch Perry, Charles Blake, COO Charles Brown and other defendants, the evidence disappeared. Brown said the items would be returned after Blake reviewed them. Documents and program she had written and copyrighted later resurfaced as COGIC related documents.

In March 2010, she received a letter from Enoch Perry stating that nothing would be compensated or returned. The good ole boy bishop’s club circled the wagons and begin denying that Brown-Johnson was ever given any assurances of compensation or justice. Brown-Johnson subsequently filed suit.

Bishop Rufus Kyles never responded to the lawsuit and never showed up in court. In a July 2012 judgment the court found in favor of the plaintiffs and awarded $900,000 in damages plus court costs and interest until the amount was paid.  COGIC’s current legal strategy is to get the case dismissed. The next hearing on that is April 21st at 11 am. You can read the actual lawsuit and judgment under Letters and Documents.

My Spiritual Heritage has been stolen from me”

An Education specialist with a degree from Sam Houston State University, Brown-Johnson told Report COGIC Abuse, “My Spiritual Heritage has been stolen from me!”

brownjohnson“I am being blackballed by chief leadership in the Church of God in Christ Church Organization which I have laid my life down for and sacrificed for so many years.

I trusted the men of God, Bishop Charles Blake, Bishop Charles Brown, Judge Enoch Perry and now deceased Bishop Chandler Owens.  [They said] No matter how long it would take, Interfaith church and I would be compensated for all losses.

My true proofs copyright venues placed in their hands are worth $1,000,000.00 apiece.  They have four. Even in a witness protection program with my life under threat, special alliances were made for compliance with request made by the General Board through Judge Enoch Perry.

I need to recover my losses so my children and my life can move forward. Interfaith church can move forward.

Judge Enoch Perry and the IRS have Kyles’ original police reports.  We only want what is due us rightfully.  I did not have Bishop Kyles and pastors arrested per the General Board’s request because they wanted to settle within the church.  The witness protection and life protection program had to be handled in a way that my true location was not disclosed from 2004-2011.  Bishop Chandler Owens did everything he could to resolve this until he became ill and passed.”

Nonbiblical COGIC Bishops

These are inglorious acts on the part of COGIC’s leadership. However, as we have reported for many years the facts of this case come as no surprise.  The defendants in this case are no strangers to Report COGIC Abuse. Under Enoch Perry’s disastrous reign as chief legal advisor,  COGIC leadership has employed unscrupulous tactics against its own unwitting members.  As they did with Brown-Johnson, false promises are made to avert court cases only to later capitulate. All four have been involved in numerous cases of sexual, judicial and administrative abuses in the last five years.

The bible is clear and there’s no shadow of turning in its qualifying instructions for the man who would be bishop. Titus 1: 7-8 For an overseer, as God’s steward, must be above reproach. He must not be arrogant or quick-tempered or a drunkard or violent or greedy for gain, but hospitable, a lover of good, self-controlled, upright, holy, and disciplined. (our bold).

When it comes to the flesh and sex, a bishop must exercise self control and discipline. Otherwise, with the magnitude of his influence and the attraction of his persona, his charisma will bring him numerous opportunities to indulge himself sexually and financially. If he does not exercise due diligence in his sexual life (apart from his wife or 100% celibate if single) he will endanger the flock and invite the same spirits to have free reign among those under his jurisdiction.

Secondly, 1 Timothy 3:7 adds this qualifier: Moreover he must have a good report of them which are without; lest he fall into reproach and the snare of the devil.

A bishop cannot have a bad character/reputation report. This doesn’t include false accusations, it means that there must not be a consistent cloud of suspicious/ungodly/unseemly behavior following him due to his own actions. This extends even to the unsaved. They must not be able to “spot” the bishop’s life inasmuch as his ethics is concerned.

If this is not valued, the bishop will “fall into reproach by giving way to the excesses of his former life [of sin]. Apparently, and with a preponderance of evidence, these COGIC bishops have no resemblance to what is shown in scripture.


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